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2D to 3D Conversion - A process whereby multiple layers of different elements are interlaced together to create the illusion of three dimensions.

Alignment -
Adjusting a print so that the image strips are parallel to the lenticules.

Binocular - Seeing with two eyes. This allows humans to see the world in 3D depth.

Card boarding - A method of creating the illusion of depth by using flat images instead of rounded images. Each flat image is then shifted left or right so that they seem to appear at different depth planes. ViewMasterŽ is an example of card boarding.

Convergence - Intersecting the line of sight of both eyes at an object or point in space.

Cross Talk - Also known as ghosting. Seeing two or more images at the same time from a single viewpoint in a lenticular image. This is caused by several problems including poor registration or a pitch mismatch, images with too much contrast, using too many images/frames, and/or exceeding the resolution capabilities of your output device in conjunction with a particular lens sheet.

Cylinder - A highly precision-oriented engraved production roll for use in extruding lenticular lens sheet material.

De-lamination - The physical separation of a mounted interlaced image from the flat side of a lenticular lens sheet.

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Direct-to-lens - Using any printing process that prints directly onto the flat surface of the lenticular lens material. This is most common in offset printing

Filler space - In an interlaced print, a technique that utilizes a neutral stripe of printed information to separate multiple frames of images from each other in order to minimize ghosting.

Flip - A lenticular effect that in its simplest form contains two images and shows them one at a time to the viewer as his viewing angle to the lens sheets changes. Images can have more than one flip effect.

Focal Point - The point of interest or the object of your attention or the point at which a lens focuses a beam of light. This is usually directly behind a lens sheet.

Focal Plane - A plane perpendicular to the axis of the lens on which an image appears to focus.

Gauge - The relative thickness of a lenticular lens sheet. Usually noted in mils (thousandths of an inch).

Ghosting - See cross talk.

Interlacing - The process of striping and arranging printed information to a given pitch to match a lenticular lens.

Key Plane - An imaginary plane in a 3D lenticular image that will not appear to have depth. The key subject is usually on the key plane.

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Key Subject - Is the subject of primary interest in an image.

Lamination - The process of adhering a pre-printed media to the lens sheet. It is commonly used to apply both photographically imaged and digitally output images to the lens sheets.

Lens count - In the U.S., the number of lenticules per inch (LPI).

Lens sheet - a sheet of transparent plastic material that has been extruded, cast or embossed with an array of identical parallel lenses.

Lenticule - A single lens in a lenticular sheet.

Morph - A lenticular effect that begins with one image which is transformed in stages to a second perhaps unrelated image.

Motion - A lenticular effect that utilizes selected highlights of frames from animated illustrations, video or film originals. The frames are displayed to the viewer one sequence at a time. The observer is given an impression of movement from one frame to the next.

Narrow Angle Lens - A lenticular lens sheet with a viewing angle between 15 and 30 degrees. Narrow angle lenses are the best for 3D effects.

Parallax (horizontal) - Where objects in a scene seem to shift laterally relative to one another as the angle of view is changed.

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Phase - Describes the number of discrete frames of a lenticular images. For example, a three-phase "flip" has three images or frames of information.

Pitch - The exact count or number of lenticules per inch (LPI).

Radius - The degree of curvature of the lens.

Refractive Index - The extent to which a lens focuses incoming light.

Registration - The physical act of aligning an interlaced image directly to the exact pitch of the lenticular sheet.

Slicing - See Interlacing.

Stripe - A computer "slice" of artwork represented by Pixels.

Thickness - See Gauge.

Viewing Angle - The amount of lenticular sheet rotation between the resets of a 3D image or one complete cycle of a flip, animated or morph image.

Wide-angle lens - A lenticular lens sheet with a viewing angle between 40 and 55 degrees. Wide-angle lenses are the best for Flip and Animated effects.

Zoom - A lenticular effect that gives the observer the impression that the object is either moving from foreground to background, from background to foreground or getting larger or smaller.


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